BUN 6 - 25 HIGH

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an elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Symptoms include pruritus, ecchymosis, edema, pericarditis, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, hemorrhaging, and with extremely elevated levels, uremic encephalopathy. When an elevated BUN is present without any symptoms, the diagnosis is azotemia. When symptoms are present, the diagnosis is uremia. An elevated BUN is seen most commonly with renal failure, both acute and chronic although lesser degrees of renal impairment also manifest with increased levels of BUN. Other conditions that may cause an elevated BUN are a high protein diet, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhaging, corticosteroid administration, tetracycline administration, Addisons disease, and tissue trauma.

When patients with renal failure become significantly uremic, dialysis often helps correct many of the symptoms. However dialysis therapy is not without its own complications (hypotension, cramps, iron deficiency, etc.). Platelet function is often impaired by uremic wastes, and patients may display an increased bleeding tendency. Treatment for acute bleeding secondary to uremia includes the above-mentioned dialysis therapy, cryoprecipitate, or desmopressin (DDAVP).